Tectonics and seismic sequence stratigraphy

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Surface and subsurface study carried out in the Cap Bon onshore area and surrounding offshore of Hammamet interests the Miocene deposits from the Langhian-to-Messinian interval time. Each sequence shows a succession of high-frequency systems tract and parasequences. These sequences are separated by remarkable sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces SB and MFS that have been correlated to the eustatic cycles and supercycles of the Global Sea Level Chart of Haq et al. The sequences have been also correlated with Sequence Chronostratigraphic Chart of Hardenbol et al.

Click here to see the Library , related to European basins, allows us to arise some major differences in number and in size. The major discontinuities, which limit the sequences resulted from the interplay between tectonic and climatic phenomena. Journal page Archives Contents list. Article Article Outline. Access to the text HTML. Access to the PDF text. Recommend this article. Save as favorites. Access to the full text of this article requires a subscription. If you are a subscriber, please sign in 'My Account' at the top right of the screen. The divergent reflection configuration of this sequence is characterized by a wedge-shaped unit in which most of the lateral thickening is accomplished by thickening of individual reflection cycles within the unit.

Numerous normal faults have been identified on interpreted regional seismic profiles in this sequence, which could be because of the ongoing activities along Indian plate active margin. The stratigraphy of the offshore Indus Basin was significantly affected by the separation of the Gondwanaland during the Mesozoic era and northward drift of the Indian Plate, post-rift downwarpping and sedimentations, and shear zone tectonics along its western margin during the Middle Cenozoic era. Pre-drift sequence overlies a buried acoustic basement. Initial detritus derived from the rapid erosion of the Karakoram, which was uplifted after the Eocene collision of India with Eurasia.

Through well to seismic tie, the horizon identified in the well can be referred to one particular reflector on the seismic section. Further to comprehend the regional stratigraphic framework of the formations in the study area, a correlation of wells in two different directions was done. The wells were selected perpendicular and as well as parallel to the seismic profiles to correlate regional stratigraphy. Gamma Ray log is used in sedimentary rocks as a shale indicator as it exhibits higher radiation levels in front of shales and clay whereas lower radiation levels in front of sandstone and limestone or dolomites [ 44 ].

The sonic log DT measures the travel time of an elastic wave through the formation. The sonic log can identify the lithologies, high velocities usually indicate carbonates, middle velocities indicate sands and low velocities, shale [ 45 ]. The stratigraphic correlation of the offshore Indus Basin is complicated by extreme lateral variations in the lithologies, however in the present study, the formations are correlated by major sequences such as Recent Sediments, Miocene, Eocene, Paleocene and Cretaceous sediments.

The deepest formation encountered is Mughal Kot Formation of Cretaceous age. The rock formations are mainly divided into clastic rocks which are composed of sandstone, siltstone, shale and conglomerates and carbonate rocks limestone and dolomite. In general, as shown in Fig. Beyond this location, erosion and basement uplift has resulted in decrease in basin depth.

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A general deepening is observed towards the central and south eastern part. Deepest location in the offshore depression is observed in the vicinity of W-9 which coincides the deeper part of the platform area in the region. On the basis of regional correlation, it is suggested that the Paleocene-Cretaceous succession in W-5 is eroded due to uplift along Murray Ridge. In addition, the Cretaceous to Oligocene succession is missing in the vicinity of W-2 probably due to erosion of shelfal sediments.

Furthermore, the formations encountered in offshore depression in Fig. Nevertheless, the well W-9 penetrated the most complete succession up to Cretaceous in the study area. This succession cannot be correlated towards northwest probably due to uplift in the basement blocks. The offshore depression further deepens towards southeast. The well W-9 is drilled upto approximately meters where the deepest formation encountered is Cretaceous aged Mughal Kot Formation.

The thickness of Siwaliks is comparatively less in W-5 due to present day uplift along the Murray Ridge. The wells on northwestern side W-3, W-4 are drilled on offshore platform area. A general deepening is observed towards southeast offshore depression. The depth decreases in the vicinity of W-3 and W-4 probably due to uplift in basement blocks. The deepest part is observed in W-9 whereas shallowest part of the basin in W The Cretaceous-Paleocene succession in W-4 are missing on offshore platform which suggests the sediments are possibly eroded due to sub areal exposure.

Furthermore, the correlation cannot be achieved towards further southeast beyond W-9 because the formations lie deeper. However, the formations cannot be correlated towards northwestern side because W-4 drilled up to Eocene strata only. The thickness of the Recent sediments Siwaliks increases towards southeast.

The thickness of Siwaliks reaches to approximately m in W The present study conceptualizes the structural geometry and stratigraphy of the offshore Indus Basin by using seismic interpretation procedure. The most remarkable tectonic setting in the region is represented by the normal faulting and by the basement uplift which divides the rifting and transpression stages [ 46 ]. On the basis of available seismic and well data, six seismic sequences have been identified on seismic record with complex normal faulting throughout the study area and a strike slip component in some of the stratigraphic levels in southwestern part of the study area as shown in Figs.

The seismic reflection configuration is complex along each sequence which mainly consists of parallel to subparallel, sigmoidal and divergent geometries. The interpretation of regional seismic profiles clearly reveals that the shelf is gradually prograding from northeast more towards southwest resulting in increased sedimentation which is probably from Karachi Platform.

Several unconformities have been identified by previous researchers [ 47 , 48 ]. A paleo-shelf has been identified on regional seismic Profile-1, Profile-7 and Profile-8 Figs. This paleo-shelf is interpreted to be originated during the separation of Indian plate from African plate in the Late Jurassic, which was the time of rifting. It is further interpreted that the sea level was at its highstand and the accommodation space was enough to deposit sediments from Cretaceous to Recent age. This paleo-shelf is onlapped by sediments of high amplitude, high frequency and discontinuous pattern of seismic reflection, since the drilling has not yet reached this depth therefore the age of these sediments is unknown.

Based on the present day position of continental shelf in the Miocene sequence, we inferred that there is considerable shift of Number of high angle normal faults extending down to the deep reflectors with horst and graben geometry have been identified on all seismic profiles. Sedimentary growth across these faults is mostly contained within shale-prone pre-shelf sediments, and their throw decline upwards to zero into the sandy clastic rocks above. A small pushup structure, dipping towards southwest has been interpreted between Eocene to Recent sediments on regional seismic Profile- 1, Profile-3 and Profile Figs.

This particular structure in the region seems to be the result of recent ongoing tectonic activities such as transpression along the Chaman transform fault or probably uplifting of Murray Ridge and basement blocks. Buried, abrupt and sharp vertical fault offsets recognized on the eastern side of the Murray Ridge [ 36 ] could correspond to the northward prolongation of the fracture zone that used to form the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary.


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The Rift basins of the Indo-Pak offshore and coastal region came into existence during the northward drift of the Indian plate as a consequence of the tension generated by the anticlock-wise rotation of the moving plate. Under these circumstances, the area on the trailing margin may subside and deform into extensional structures to accommodate space. The evidences of extensional phenomenon small scale spreading along Murray Ridge have been attributed to such an anti-clockwise rotation [ 50 ]. An attempt has been made to compute the structural growth along the NE and SW flanks of the push up structures observed on seismic records Fig.

The structural growth was episodic in the study area but the timing is almost same which was initiated in the Late Eocene. The total growth of the anticline on its southwest flank of Profile-1 is approximately is m whereas m on Profile Similarly, the cumulative growth computed along the northeastern flank of the anticlinal structure is approximately m on Profile-1 and m on Profile In the case of Cretaceous and Paleocene sequence, the structural growth is comparatively not prominent.

The majority of the growth along Profile-3 in Fig. A total of 15 wells have been drilled in the offshore Indus, out of these, few wells did not reach the objective reservoirs due to technical difficulties while other wells appear to have been drilled on improper potential zone. The source rocks analyses of shale samples from wells drilled indicate the presence of hydrocarbon maturation in sediments ranging in age from Early to Middle Miocene.

Miocene and Eocene aged carbonates and sandstones seem to be the objective reservoirs [ 17 ].

Quaternary tectonics and seismic stratigraphy of the western Black Sea shelf

The possible hydrocarbon traps in the region are horst geometries, small anticlines, and stratigraphic traps. The present study helped in interpreting the stratigraphy, nature of faults and imaged subsurface structure more precisely in comparison to previous studies, therefore it would assist in achieving hydrocarbon discoveries. The offshore Indus Basin, which is an Atlantic type passive continental margin of the Indian Plate provided an excellent location to study the impact of early rifting and present day collisional tectonics on subsurface structure and stratigraphy.

The seismic reflection data interpretation in the study area shows overall normal faulting and an anticlinal pushup structure oriented SW-NE. The normal faulting in the region is representative of rifting process initiated in the Mesozoic. The pushup structure in the Late Eocene to Recent sediments is attributed to compressive tectonics of Indian-Eurasian plate collision commenced and probably due to basement uplift. We further infer that, the past exploration disappointments in the region were due to lack of understanding of subsurface structures and formations trend, which are helpful in defining petroleum system and nature of traps.

Our findings could also be useful for carrying out hydrocarbon exploration activities in the region and understanding the tectonostratigraphy of the worldwide passive continental margins. Jaswal T. Annual Technical conference, , 47— Molnar P. Science, , — Clift P. Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the Western Himalaya and Karakoram.

Geological Society of America Bulletin, , ; — Fifty-five million years of Tibetan evolution recorded in the Indus Fan. Transactions American Geophysical Union, , — Jacob K. Geodynamics of Pakistan. Geological Survey Pakistan, Quetta, , — Lawrence R. Biswas S. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, , Parker E. In: Proceedings. Naini B. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, , — Norton I. Journal of Geophysical Research, , — McGowran, B. Fisher R. Geological Society of America Bulletin, , — Quadri V.


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Shuaib S. McHargue T. Daley T. Geological Society London Special Publications, , — Carmichael S. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. Petroleum Geoscience, , — The stratigraphic evolution of the Indus Fan and the history of sedimentation in the Arabian Sea. Marine Geophysical Research, , — Geological Society, London, Special Publications, , 1—5. Kolla U.

Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Response to Eustatic, Tectonic and Climatic Forcing

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Lesson 21 - Seismic Sequences

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Quaternary tectonics and seismic stratigraphy of the western Black Sea shelf

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Tectonics and seismic sequence stratigraphy

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Wire line logging, , 55— Khan M. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, , — Gaedicke C. Seismic stratigraphy and correlation of major regional unconformities in the Northern Arabian Sea. Geological Society of London Special Publication, , 25— Rodriguez M. Tectonophysics, , — White R. Geological Survey of Pakistan, , — Export Citation. Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. User Account Log in Register Help.

Seismic sequence stratigraphy

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    Abstract Regional seismic reflection profiles and deep exploratory wells have been used to characterize the subsurface structural trends and seismo-stratigraphic architecture of the sedimentary successions in offshore Indus Pakistan. Paleocene Sequence Ranikot Formation The Paleocene sequence is bounded by the Cretaceous at the base and Eocene sequence at the top and is conformable above and below.

    Eocene Sequence Ghazij and Kirthar Formations The Eocene sequence nearly 56 Ma consisting of Ghazij and Kirthar Formations is encountered in all wells near the offshore platform area as well as offshore depression close to Murray Ridge.



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