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Deducting Cleaning and Repairs Costs From a Security Deposit | Nolo
Search Search Search Browse menu. Sign in. Recent updates. The Cleaning Encyclopedia. Description Details The ultimate guide to the art of cleaning, this reference is packed with professional secrets for getting maximum results through minimum results through minimum effort. Languages English. Don Aslett - Author.
Retrieved September 22, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. The historically orig.
Warm air vaporizes the residual solvent and unheated air is passed through to reduce wrinkles. Fresh air is added to freshen and deodorize clothing. There are many steps during the dry cleaning process in which PERC and other solvents have the potential to become airborne. Filtration and distillation are the main methods used to recover solvents. Distillation removes soluble oils and greases not recovered by filtration. These processes convert PERC into a solid form that then renders it disposable as hazardous waste.
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The government regulates dry cleaning stores to levels of less than one hundred parts per million ppm , but encourages them to operate at levels below twenty-five ppm. The main danger outside a dry cleaning store is to residences in the same building. Inexpensive technology, such as exhaust fans, can safely remove these potentially dangerous substances. Despite such measures, residents who live in buildings housing dry cleaning establishments, as well as workers, may be exposed to concentrations of PERC that are of public health concern.
The potential continues to exist for environmental contamination of water and soil due to improper disposal of PERC. Proper disposal and collection of this material as a hazardous substance should be performed in order to minimize the environmental impact. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 22, Retrieved September 22, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Special solvents and soaps are used so as not to harm fabrics and dyes that will not withstand the effects of ordinary soap and water.
Dry cleaning began in France about the middle of the 19th cent. The danger of fire—at first a constant menace because of the large amounts of flammable materials in use—was largely overcome by concentrating the work in specially designed plants and by the use of a high-boiling petroleum product still commonly used in the United States.
Newer chlorinated hydrocarbon synthetic solvents, such as perchlorethylene, are nonflammable but require precautions against their toxicity and danger to the ozone layer. The process for dry cleaning ordinary fabrics is to place them in revolving washers where they are washed with the cleansing fluid and a special soap, rinsed with pure cleansing fluid, and then spun to remove most of the fluid.
They are then dried with warm air in a tumbler.
Delicate fabrics are done by hand. The cleansing fluids are reclaimed and used again. Unusual stains are given an expert test to determine the proper solvent; special stain removers include chloroform, ether, and carbon disulphide. Dry cleaning is a process of cleaning clothes and fabrics with solutions that do not contain water. The practice has been traced back to France where around turpentine was used in the cleaning this process. According to Albert R. Martin and George P. Fulton in Dry cleaning, Technology and Theory, published in , the tradition passed down regarding the origins of dry cleaning states that the process was discovered when "a can of 'camphene,' a fuel for oil lamps, was accidentally spilled on a gown and found to clean it, and this discovery led to the first dry cleaning establishment.
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By the late s, naphtha, gasoline , benzene , and benzol — the most common solvent — were being used for dry cleaning. This was known as the Stoddard solvent. The first chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaning was carbon tetrachloride. It continued to be used until the s when its toxicity and corrosiveness were determined to be hazardous. By the s, the use of trichloroethylene became common. In the s the chemical was still being used in industrial cleaning plants and on a limited basis in Europe.
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This chemical's incompatibility with acetate dyes used in the United States brought about the end of its use in the United States. Tetrachloroethylene replaced other dry cleaning solvents almost completely by the s and s. However, in Japan petroleum-based solvents continued in use through the s.
By the late s, perchloroethylene perc or PCE replaced tetrachloroethylene as the predominant cleaning solvent. When the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA issued national regulations to control air emissions of perc from dry cleaners in September , environmental groups and consumers began to pay closer attention to the possible negative impact this chemical could have on human health.
In July , the American Council on Science and Health issued a report concluding that perc was not hazardous to humans at the levels most commonly used in dry cleaning.