Surface structuring is also being used extensively in modern manufacturing. In this way many properties can be altered, for example optical, tribological, biological and fluidic.
Previously, single line profile measurements were adequate to control manufacture of surfaces, but as the need to control the functionality of surfaces increases, there is a growing need for three-dimensional areal measurement and characterisation techniques. For this reason there has been considerable research, development and standardisation of areal techniques.
This book will present the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community. Whereas previous books have concentrated on the measurement aspects, this book concentrates on the characterisation techniques, i. The first part of the book presents the characterisation methods and the second part case studies that highlight the use of areal methods in a broad range of subject areas - from automobile manufacture to archaeology. He has been with NPL since and has current research interests in surface topography measurement, micro-coordinate metrology, high dynamic range sensing and computed tomography.
He has over publications including three textbooks. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview The function of a component part can be profoundly affected by its surface topography. Show More. Table of Contents Introduction to surface topography. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches.
- Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture - Richard Leach - Häftad () | Bokus.
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For this reason there has been considerable research, development and standardisation of areal techniques. This book will present the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community. Whereas previous books have concentrated on the measurement aspects, this book concentrates on the characterisation techniques, i. The first part of the book presents the characterisation methods and the second part case studies that highlight the use of areal methods in a broad range of subject areas - from automobile manufacture to archaeology.
Length-scale and area-scale analysis methods, which exploit the fractal nature of topographies, are then reviewed, with an emphasis on areal methods.
Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture - Google книги
In addition, examples are presented of the discoveries of functional correlations, and the abilities to discriminate that are made possible by multi-scale fractal analysis. Modern production has to fulfill the needs of smarter surfaces and cost-effectiveness. In both cases the measurement and analysis of the surface texture of functional surfaces is a valuable process. Surface texture analysis has developed a great deal during the last decade.
National and international standards have been defined. One problem in modern surface metrology is the presence of too many available parameters. It is difficult for a typical operator to decide which surface texture parameters are most appropriate for monitoring whether the desired surface properties are met. In this chapter several approaches for how to identify the most suitable parameters for an application are presented. The approaches are based on classification algorithms which are widely used in the field of machine learning.
After presenting the necessary mathematical background, the application of the classification algorithms for surface texture analysis are discussed. Finally, a practical example on the discrimination of new and used abrasive paper is given in which, twenty-one surface texture parameters were measured. Classification is used to identify those parameters that are most suitable for the discrimination between new and used abrasive paper. Along with the characterisation of areal surface topography through texture parameters, surface metrology is increasingly facing challenges related to the dimensional and geometric characterisation of individual surface features.
Typical scenarios range from the inspection of individual elements of micro-parts and devices, to the characterisation of pattern units in structured surfaces, and to the analysis of scratches, pores, bumps and other singularities either generated by the manufacturing process, or originated during the operational life of the surface.
Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture
The characterisation of individual surface features opens up a wide array of new application scenarios and creates novel challenges for surface metrology. Early approaches are not as consolidated as what is available for the characterisation of surface texture and see the convergence of mathematical models, methods and algorithmic solutions coming from heterogeneous disciplines such as image processing, computer vision, coordinate metrology, reverse engineering, and computer-aided design. In this chapter an overview of the tools available in current surface metrology software is provided first.
Then, the main challenges and open issues of achieving full metrological characterisation of individual surface features are introduced and discussed, as well as the current research approaches addressing them. In this chapter the relationship between surface topography and its functional performance is partially investigated using the statistical technique of the roughness amplitude distribution. The three dimensional morphological approach is used to better understand the connection between surface topography and functional performance.
With increasing competition in the photovoltaic industry, quality control to maximise efficiency is critical. Surface texture is broadly known to qualitatively affect solar cell efficiency. However, quantitative correlation between specific measures of surface texture and efficiency has only recently been demonstrated, through use of large-area, three dimensional measurements and associated areal field parameters.
This chapter discusses how certain surface texture parameters have been shown to linearly correlate with solar cell efficiency in different manufacturing processes.
A three-dimensional, non-contact microscope, which uses specialised objectives to obtain areal surface information over a large field of view in seconds, was used to measure the surface texture of a variety of solar cells from different processes. Areal surface texture parameters, defined in ISO part 2, were compared with the relative efficiencies of various cells.
The key parameters that linearly correlate to efficiency were identified. The ability to rapidly quantify surface texture in a way that correlates to cell efficiency allows process optimisation and control, lowering the cost per watt of photovoltaic cells.
It is of common interest to reduce oil consumption and frictional losses in internal combustion engines, which are heavily influenced by the quality of the cylinder liner surface. The plateau cross-hatch topography of a cylinder liner consists of a system of grooves of different density, width and depth, some parts covered by folded metal, and some parts totally interrupted and unbalanced as a result of imperfection in the honing process.
These grooves are critical for good liner function, and need to be quickly and objectively quantified for an efficient surface finish development.