Geopedology: An Integration of Geomorphology and Pedology for Soil and Landscape Studies

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The map was based on the geological map of Italy, drafted in scale ,, after the creation of the Kingdom of Italy in The internal disputes within the Geological Society, together with the scarce interest of most of geologists for soil, did not facilitate the birth of a central soil survey. Soil mapping was mainly conducted by universities and research institutes, and we had to wait until for a new soil map scale ,, at national level to be realised by Paolo Principi, based on literature data. In a new ,, soil map of Italy was eventually published by a national committee, led by Fiorenzo Mancini.

Zoological diagnostics of soils was conceived by M. Ghilarov as a part of soil zoology and intended to be closely related to pedology. He considered zoo-agents as an ecological factor, one among many others, of soil formation. Contemporary soil diagnostics pursues mostly utilitarian goals and is based on conservative properties of the stable part of soil substrate.

However, it is admitted that these properties are generated by specific combinations of biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that are called "elementary soil processes" ESP and occur nowhere but in soils. Certain ESPs are associated with distinctive combinations of biota, including invertebrates. Pedobionts act as producers of detritus and contribute to humus formation, which is necessary for any ESP starting, thus being its active party.

That is why animals, being the most complex and active part of the ESP system, may be treated not only as its indicators but also as its navigators. Monitoring and studying of ESPs in soil is complicated because of inevitable disturbance of soil profile natural composition. Zoo-agents, at the same time, can be registered without habitats changing. Taking into account ecological potency of soil invertebrates that participate in an ESP, spectra of their eco-groups, life forms, and results of their activity, it is possible to diagnose a soil state at different stages of certain ESPs development, with their different combinations, and in different regions or parts of natural environmental gradients.

A semester-long soil mapping project for an undergraduate pedology course. Most students taking a pedology course will never work as soil mappers. But many will use soil maps at some point in their careers. At Montana State University, students spent 3 "lab" hours a week, complementing two lectures a week, in the field learning how to study soils literally from the ground up. The only prerequisites for enrollment were completion of an introductory soil science class and 3rd year standing at the university. The area to be mapped, just a km from campus, included a steep mountain backslope, and a complex footslope-toeslope area with diverse soils.

Students were divided into teams of , with approximately 40 students altogether split over two sections that overlapped in the field by one hour. In the first lab session, groups completed a very basic description of just one soil profile. In subsequent weeks, they rotated through multiple pits excavated in a small area, and expanded their soil profile descriptions and interpretations.

As students developed proficiency, they were assigned more dispersed locations to study, working for the most part independently as I hiked between pits. Throughout this process, every pit was geolocated using a GPS unit, and every profile description was copied and retained in a designated class file. Student groups delineated map units using stereo air photography, then used these delineations to guide the selection of their final locations to describe.

At the end of the course, groups used all of the combined and georeferenced profile descriptions to construct a soil map of the study area complete with map unit descriptions. Most students struggled to make sense of the substantial variability within their map units, but through this struggle -- and their semester of field work -- they gained an appreciation for the value and limitations of a soil map that could not be obtained from even the most entertaining lecture.

Both the class and particularly the field sessions received consistently high student reviews. Scaling considerations related to interactions of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes Invited. Measurement of hydraulic conductivity K and infiltration capacity at small scales generally underestimates these values for application at larger field, hillslope, or catchment scales.

Both vertical and slope-parallel saturated flow and related contaminant transport are often influenced by interconnected networks of preferential flow paths, which are not captured in K measurements derived from soil cores. Using such K values in models may underestimate water and contaminant fluxes and runoff peaks.

As shown in small-scale runoff plot studies, infiltration rates are typically lower than integrated infiltration across a hillslope or in headwater catchments. The resultant greater infiltration-excess overland flow in small plots compared to larger landscapes is attributed to the lack of preferential flow continuity; plot border effects; greater homogeneity of rainfall inputs, topography and soil physical properties; and magnified effects of hydrophobicity in small plots.

At the hillslope scale, isolated areas with high infiltration capacity can greatly reduce surface runoff and surface erosion at the hillslope scale. These hydropedologic and hydrogeomorphic processes are also relevant to both occurrence and timing of landslides. The focus of many landslide studies has typically been either on small-scale vadose zone process and how these affect soil mechanical properties or on larger scale, more descriptive geomorphic studies.

One of the issues in translating laboratory-based investigations on geotechnical behavior of soils to field scales where landslides occur is the characterization of large-scale hydrological processes and flow paths that occur in heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media.

These processes are not only affected. The application of remotely sensed data to pedologic and geomorphic mapping on alluvial fan and playa surfaces in Saline Valley, California. Arid and semiarid regions yield excellent opportunities for the study of pedologic and geomorphic processes. The dominance of rock and soil exposure over vegetation not only provides the ground observer with observational possibilities but also affords good opportunities for measurement by aircraft and satellite remote sensor devices.

Previous studies conducted in the area of pedologic and geomorphic mapping in arid regions with remotely sensed data have utilized information obtained in the visible to near-infrared portion of the spectrum. The importance of both geological and pedological processes in control of grain size and sedimentation rates in Peoria Loess.

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The loess-paleosol succession in the Peoria Loess in southern Illinois is characterized as alternating loess layers and weathering bands, known as paleosol A horizons. The fast loess accumulation during the late Wisconsin glaciation interacted with the incipient pedogenesis and caused unclear boundaries of loess-paleosol alternations in soil horizonation and mineralogy. Parameters of grain size distribution, sedimentation rate, matrix carbonate content and diffuse reflectance i. The multi-proxy analysis revealed that many paleosol A horizons, defined by the diffuse reflectance variability, contain finer-grained materials with a relatively higher sedimentation rate.

It suggests that glaciofluvial sediments were available in the source areas for uploading eolian dust during the temporary ice sheet retreats. The denser vegetation and wetter surface soils on the loess deposit area could increase the dust trapping efficiency and caused a greater accumulation rate of loess deposits. The coarser-grained materials and slower sedimentation rate are often found in loess layers.

It suggests that strong surface winds transported the coarser-grained materials from local dust sources and sparse vegetation and dry surface soils reduced the dust trapping efficiency during the ice sheet readvance. The strong interactions between the geological and pedological processes played an important role on the loess-paleosol alternations in southern Illinois during the late Wisconsin glaciation.

All rights reserved. Human imprint on archaeological anthroposols: first assessment of combined micromophological, pedological and lipid biomarkers analyses of organic matter. Archaeological anthroposol matrix contains significant amounts of fine organic matter OM , which can give archaeological information. Geoarchaeological studies of OM aim to reveal its origin in order to reconstruct past human activities. Such studies are complex because the nature and the abundance of OM is the result of human activities together with natural processes. Also, MO evolves over time, a process that is not well understood.

Combination of complementary approaches may give further insights into human imprint on archaeological anthroposols. Our work aims to i identify morphological and geochemical markers of human activity at different scales, ii compare results of different analytical methods to better understand the relation between matrix components and features, chemical properties, and geochemical markers, and iii infer relations between pedo-sedimentary history and OM preservation. Two tanning pits in urban craft areas were selected for sampling, as they are likely to contain large amounts of organic matter of vegetal and animal origin.

The pit of Famars FAM, near the Belgian border, luvisols, Roman period was hypothesized to be a part of the tanning process. Biological soil crusts biocrusts are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces.

Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces Qya2, Qya3, Qya4 and cutbanks than on very young Qya1 , older-aged surfaces Qia1, Qia2 , or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. Geomorphological, pedological , and hydrological characteristics of karst lakes at Conversano Apulia, southern Italy as a basis for environmental protection. The land around Conversano Apulia, southern Italy is part of the Murge karst, interesting limestones and dolomitic limestones of Upper Cretaceous age, in a flat environment with sub-horizontal setting.

Dolines and karst depressions are the most typical landforms in the area. Filling of these landforms with eluvial deposits locally created the possibility of water stagnancy at the surface. The Conversano territory presents ten karst lakes that represented, until some decades ago, the only water resource available for the local people, who built the typical bell-shaped wells to collect water volumes satisfying local needs during the dry season.

Currently, these lakes have no great importance as water supplies, but represent habitats of great naturalistic value that are still able to support the ecological functionality and the wet environments with self-vegetation. Hydrological and hydrogeological studies have been carried out with the aim to fully estimate the related environmental problems. For this purpose, the hydrogeologic data of historical time series have been collected and compared to those of the last 5 years; successively, according to the Thornthwaite method, a hydrological monthly balance has been evaluated to quantify the distribution of water volumes interacting annually between the surface water bodies and the underlying carbonate groundwater.

This evaluation has highlighted the need to carefully consider all the parameters concurring to a right definition of water balance for a karst environment, where pedological features, climatic conditions and anthropogenic modifications to the environment represent the elements of a very delicate system. Particularly, on the basis of recent soil map and field surveys, a re-evaluation of the available water capacity, estimated in some 40 mm, has been carried out.

The studies have highlighted the need to extend the environmental protection rules to larger areas around the lakes, e. What's so critical about the critical zone? The great promise of critical zone science and observatories CZOs emerging over the past decade was that real progress towards understanding the earth's near-surface environment could be made through coordinated studies of processes and interactions that occur within that thin layer between the bottom of the atmosphere and the top of competent bedrock - the critical zone.

How well has this promise been realized, and where is the science now headed? Drawing on recent findings from CZOs and elsewhere, I identify a number of exciting and potentially transformative new ideas and threads at the boundaries of hydrology, geomorphology, pedology , and ecology. These include: 1. New understanding of interactions and feedbacks among soil weathering, pathways for water, tree roots, and bedrock fractures. A fundamental insight emerging from critical zone studies is that soils are far more interestingly structured than simple textbook models of homogeneous substrates with exponentially decreasing permeability with depth.

Instead, the near-surface is now seen as a complex network of voids, paths, conduits, and storage zones that are both formed and exploited by the movement of water, geochemical reactions, and organisms. This evolving perspective on the critical zone has implications for a wide range of issues, including the residence time and chemistry of water, rates of weathering, slope stability, and long-term soil fertility.

Growing appreciation for the role of biology in conditioning and transforming its own physical environment within the critical zone. This includes the role of trees in hydraulically redistributing water, fracturing bedrock, and contributing to long-term soil erosion and landscape evolution through tree fall and throw and vegetation effects on moisture regimes. Similarly, the importance of understanding linkages among soils, water, and vegetation has never been greater as a warming climate dramatically changes the 'rules of the game'.

Missing evidence for the LGM-asynchronity in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological archives. Whereas in the Eastern Pyrenees the glacial advances are dated in several well agreeing studies by surface exposure dating of boulders from lateral or terminal moraines, the asynchronity of the Central Spanish Pyrenees was postulated mainly by OSL dating on glacial and fluvial sediments and on radiocarbon dating of pollen from lacustrine deposits. The time difference of about 15 ka raises the question if this is a result of local climate factors or owed to failures caused by using several dating techniques on different archives.

Anyway, if this time lag is correct, post-LGM formation of soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene should be different between the Eastern Pyrenees and the Central Spanish Pyrenees. We therefore applied a combined approach of geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological investigations to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development in the Aragon- and Gallego Valley of the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Our study reveals that in both valleys the Pre-Holocene geomorphodynamics on the lateglacial deposits show clear analogies with findings from Pleistocene periglacial landscapes in Central Europe.

For MIS 4 and early MIS 3 periglacial processes are proven by loess deposition and formation of solifluction sediments. The glacial sediments, which were dated in earlier studies into mid MIS 3 and counted so far as prove for the asynchronous LGM of the Central Spanish Pyrenees, are covered by periglacial deposits of lateglacial age 14 ka to 11 ka.

Surprisingly neither the glacial sediments have pedogenic features that indicate lateglacial soil development, nor do the periglacial deposits show indications for lateglacial soil erosion. Therefore we conclude that soil formation. Comparing different approaches - data mining, geostatistic, and deterministic pedology - to assess the frequency of WRB Reference Soil Groups in the Italian soil regions.

Estimating frequency of soil classes in map unit is always affected by some degree of uncertainty, especially at small scales, with a larger generalization. The aim of this study was to compare different possible approaches - data mining, geostatistic, deterministic pedology - to assess the frequency of WRB Reference Soil Groups RSG in the major Italian soil regions. In the soil map of Italy Costantini et al. The soil map was produced using the national soil geodatabase, which stored 22, analyzed and classified pedons, 1, soil typological unit STU and a set of auxiliary variables lithology, land-use, DEM.

Other variables were added, to better consider the influence of soil forming factors slope, soil aridity index, carbon stock, soil inorganic carbon content, clay, sand, geography of soil regions and soil systems and a grid at 1 km mesh was set up. The traditional deterministic pedology assessed the STU frequency according to the expert judgment presence in every elementary landscape which formed the mapping unit. Different data mining techniques were firstly compared in their ability to predict RSG through auxiliary variables neural networks, random forests, boosted tree, supported vector machine SVM.

We selected SVM according to the result of a testing set. A SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that examples of separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible.


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The geostatistic algorithm we used was an indicator collocated cokriging. The class values of the auxiliary variables, available at all the points of the grid, were transformed in indicator variables values 0, 1. Gully erosion balance in the context of pedological -sedimentological research, geodesic measurements and Aerial Laser Scanning Lublin Upland, E Poland.

The dissection of loess covers by Neoholocene gullies in east Poland particularly depends on relative heights. In the case of height differences not exceeding 30 m, gullies hardly exist. Systems of dissections called badlands are then abundant, as well as piping landforms with no surface runoff.

The gullies are covered by forest vegetation - particularly dry-ground forest Tilio-carpinetum. In such conditions, it is difficult to accurately mark the gullies on a map, and perform geodesic measurements in the field. Even the measurement of the length and calculation of the density of the gullies is problematic.

Due to the diversity of their types and shapes, the calculation of the volume of the gullies, and therefore the determination of the total amount of gully erosion, is approximate, particularly in many kilometres long branched out systems. An additional difficulty is posed by the agricultural use of some slopes and bottoms of the gullies in the past. This considerably changed the features of such landforms, making them resemble Late Pleistocene trough valleys.

The determination of their genesis requires conducting pedological research. For the above reasons, calculations of the volume of the gully and its erosion balance were performed for a small gully catchment with an area of 0. The difference in height between the valley floor and the plateau amounts to 58 m m a.

Nine height difference and soil transects were performed within the analysed system, and geodesic. Pedological and mineralogical investigations on a soil-paleosoil sequence within Andosols in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes region Laramate, An integrated research project of environmental sciences focuses on a group of four Andosol profiles in Western flank of the Peruvian southern Andes. Aim of this study is to contribute to the reconstruction of the paleo environmental conditions in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. Standard pedological and sedimentological analysis has been conducted in order to identify morphological and geochemical features generated by climatic variations during the middle and late Holocene.

Though a provenance analysis of sediments, all potential lithological sources around the town of Laramate are being examined under the scanning electron microscope, in order to find significant mineralogical associations downward the soil-profile. Preliminary results reveal two edaphic cycles within a soil-paleo soil-sequence: a relative poor developed "Ah" topsoil, mostly composed by fine grain sediments, is underlain by a well preserved "2Ah" paleo soil; a "2Bwt" subsoil exhibits signs of alteration and clay translocation; parent material in slight weathered statement at "2C" culminates the sequence.

Mineralogical analytical data supports the premise, that materials in the uppermost horizons are relatable to distal geological units of the Western and Eastern Cordillera, therefore also related to other described aeolian archives from the region: "Desert Margin Loess" at the Andean foot-zone and "Mixed Loess" in the Puna grassland.

The amphibole varieties Actinolite, Mg-Hornblende and Edenite could be only distinguished within the soil sediments. The fluvial transport to its current position is excluded, insofar mentioned varieties stem from the granodiorites of Coastal Batholite downstream the study area , and the vulcanites of the Anta und Andahuaylas Formation eastward the continental divide. References: Eitel, B. Pedology : changes in the science, changes in the profession.

The anthropocene can be characterized in part as a period of rising public awareness of the anthropogenic effects on the environment, exponential increases in knowledge and information, and an expanding role of policy makers in determining research agendas. These factors have had profound impacts on Forensic pedology , forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics. We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science.


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This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. A nomenclatural framework based on the first use of each term is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS.

The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Breaking ground: Pedological , geological, and ecological implications of soil bioturbation. Soil and its biota are fundamental components of the "Critical Zone": Earth's living skin that most directly sustains life. Within that zone, geologically-rapid soil and saprolite displacement by biota, particularly invertebrate meso- and macrofauna, affects a large proportion of Earth's soils.

This was first recognised by lateth century observers, on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, who regarded bioturbation as fundamental to soil formation. Throughout much of the 20th century, however, the agronomical focus of soil scientists and the dominant paradigm of landscape evolution relegated bioturbation.

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As a result, many aspects of bioturbation are still not widely appreciated. Only in the last few decades has a re-evaluation commenced, in a range of disciplines. Primary effects of bioturbation, which we quantify herein, include soil production from saprolite, the formation of surface mounds, soil burial, and downslope transport. Rates of bioturbation can be as rapid as sustained maximum rates of tectonic uplift.

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In concert with surface geomorphic processes, bioturbation alters fundamental properties of soil, including particle-size distribution, porosity, the content of carbon and other nutrients, and creep flux rate. The precise influence of biotic mixing is regulated by its depth function. Earth's incredibly diverse soil biota also perform a number of functions, at a range of spatial and temporal scales, that extend beyond soil to landscape evolution, ecosystem engineering, niche construction, and carbon cycling.

Understanding these linkages—which have operated since the evolution of trees in the Devonian Period—is of growing importance as we seek a fuller picture of Earth's history to predict and manage its future. The preferential flow of soil: A widespread phenomenon in pedological perspectives. The article provides an overview of studies about the preferential flow phenomenon.

This phenomenon is one of the types of the transportation of water solution through the soil profile by preferential channels pathways with a relatively high speed and with a slight change in the chemical composition of the solution. Interest in this phenomenon has risen sharply in the last two decades due to the observed fast transportation of contaminants from soil surface into groundwater level. On the basis of the literature data, the authors give the definition of this phenomenon, consider its types, degree, features, mechanisms, methods and models and research perspectives, in particular the interaction between preferential flow and soil matrix flow.

The article considers the aspects of the movement of soil water carrying heavy metals and pesticides; hence, it concerns the protection of environment and people's health. It provides the thorough review of the studies on the preferential flow, and describes the research directions and their development. Pedologic and geomorphic impacts of a tornado blowdown event in a mixed pine-hardwood forest.

Biomechanical effects of trees on soils and surface processes may be extensive in forest environments.

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Two blowdown sites caused by a November tornado in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas allowed a case study examination of bioturbation associated with a specific forest blowdown event, as well as detailed examination of relationships between tree root systems Are catenas relevant to soil maps and pedology in Iowa in the twenty-first century?

The modern intensity of agriculture brings to question whether anthropogenic impacts on soil profiles and catenas in agricultural areas are minor or dominant pedogenic influences. Answering this question is crucial to evaluating the modern relevance of historic soil maps, which use the traditional catena model as their foundation. This study quantifies the magnitude of change within the soil profile and across the landscape that result from decadal scale agriculture. Four benchmark catenas located on the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa, USA, were re-examined to determine the changes that occurred in the soils over the intervening years.

The first site was initially studied by Walker and Ruhe in the mid 's. Burras and Scholtes initially examined the second catena in the early 's, while the remaining two catenas were first studied in the early 's by Steinwand and Fenton, and the late 's by Konen. Thus, the catenas were re-sampled for this study roughly 50, 30, 20, and 15 years, respectively, after the initial study. In this part of Iowa, continuous row crop agriculture primarily Zea mays and Glycine max and extensive subsurface drainage are very common.

All study sites are closed-basin catenas located within 40 km of each other with a parent material of Late Wisconsinan glacial till. Soil cores to a depth of approximately two meters were taken with a truck mounted Giddings hydraulic soil sampler at 27 to 30 meter intervals along one transect for each of the four catenas, resulting in a total of forty-eight cores. The soil cores were then brought to the laboratory where soil descriptions and laboratory analyses are being completed. Soil descriptions include information about horizon type and depth, Munsell color, texture, rock fragments, structure, consistence, clay films, roots, pores, presence of carbonates, and redoximorphic features.

Laboratory analyses include bulk density, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, stable aggregate content, and pH. The resulting data is being analyzed and compared to historic data and models of pedogenesis. Preliminary and anticipated results indicate that soil properties such as bulk density, pH, geometric mean particle size, structure, A-horizon thickness, carbon distribution, depth to carbonates, and redoximorphic features have been altered by agricultural land use over the past 50 years.

This indicates that anthropogenic impacts due to agriculture are a significant pedogenic influence, which is decreasing the scientific value of historic soil maps. Influence of geologic and pedologic factors on health of sugar maple on the Allegheny Plateau. Decline of sugar maple Acer saccharum Marsh. Horsley et al. Slingram EMI prospection: Are vertical orientated devices a suitable solution in archaeological and pedological prospection? Electromagnetic induction EMI is one of the geophysical techniques widely used in soil studies, the slingram devices being held horizontally over the soil surface, i.

Our study aims assessing the abilities of slingram devices when held vertically. Some comparative surveys were also undertaken in archaeological contexts to confirm the reliability of theoretical conclusions. Both approaches show that vertical slingram devices are suitable for survey and can constitute an alternative to the usual horizontal orientation.

We give a table in Appendix A which contains the calibration coefficient allowing transforming of the values given by some of commercially available devices which would be advantageous to use in vertical orientation. The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum.

Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal Three sterols were identified and characterized. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location.

Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce positive vs negative in different areas of the same vineyard.

Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.

Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the REEs loss due to agricultural land use. Our preliminary hypothesis is the existence of organometallic complexes that retain REEs in natural soils, which are degraded with vinicultural management.

An Integration of Geomorphology and Pedology for Soil and Landscape Studies

However other factors as differential weathering rates of minerals, clays mineralogy and fractionation of REE by plants must be considered. A spatial scaling relationship for soil moisture in a semiarid landscape, using spatial scaling relationships for pedology. In humid areas it is generally considered that soil moisture scales spatially according to the wetness index of the landscape. This scaling arises from lateral flow downslope of ground water within the soil zone. However, in semi-arid and drier regions, this lateral flow is small and fluxes are dominated by vertical flows driven by infiltration and evapotranspiration.

Thus, in the absence of runon processes, soil moisture at a location is more driven by local factors such as soil and vegetation properties at that location rather than upstream processes draining to that point. The 'apparent' spatial randomness of soil and vegetation properties generally suggests that soil moisture for semi-arid regions is spatially random. In this presentation a new analysis of neutron probe data during summer from the Tarrawarra site near Melbourne, Australia shows persistent spatial organisation of soil moisture over several years.

This suggests a link between permanent features of the catchment e. This and other data establishes a prima facie case that soil variations drive spatial variation in soil moisture. Accordingly, we used a previously published spatial scaling relationship for soil properties derived using the mARM pedogenesis model to simulate the spatial variation of soil grading. This soil grading distribution was used in the Rosetta pedotransfer model to derive a spatial distribution of soil functional properties e.

These functional properties were then input into the HYDRUS-1D soil moisture model and soil moisture simulated for 3 years at daily resolution. The scaling behaviour of soil moisture derived from this modelling will be discussed and compared with observed data from our SASMAS field sites. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology , permeability and Ra content.

This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte RMBH , Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas.

The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals. Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland.

Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity.

The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1 identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2 explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3 examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events.

During the wet season a m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled.

Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability.

Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events.

The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

The pedological heritage of the Dolomites Northern Italy : Features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management. Since , the Department of Environmental Sciences of Ca' Foscari University of Venice has undertaken numerous research projects aimed at deepening understanding of pedogenic processes in the Dolomites, and at highlighting the fundamental contribution that soil science can give to the conservation of natural resources and achieve sustainable management of mountain ecosystems. A total of several hundred profiles have been described, analyzed and mapped.

This paper reports the results from the analysis of pedo-environmental characters of profiles developed from different parent materials, at altitudes between m and m and in different conditions of slope, exposure and vegetation cover. Soil forming factors, landforms and land surfaces have been interpreted to understand the soil-landscape in the mapped areas and to develop a qualitative model of soil geography into the Dolomites scenery. The application of land evaluation methods in some of the investigated territories that are subjected to intensive tourist fluxes revealed some criticisms.

Collected results also highlighted the high environmental heterogeneity of soils of the Dolomites. The influence of the pedogenic and climatic contexts on the formation and preservation of pedogenic carbonates in a climosequence in the Western Ghats Karnataka Plateau, South West India has been studied. Along the climosequence, the current mean annual rainfall MAR varies within a 80 km transect from mm at the edge of the Plateau to mm inland.

Pedogenic carbonates occur in the MAR range of mm. In the semi-arid zone MAR: mm , carbonates occur i as thick hardpan calcretes on pediment slopes and ii as nodular horizons in polygenic black soils i. In the sub-humid zone MAR: mm , pedogenic carbonates are disseminated in the black soil matrices either as loose, irregular and friable nodules of millimetric size or as indurated botryoidal nodules of centimetric to pluricentimetric size.

They also occur at the top layers of the saprolite either as disseminated pluricentimetric indurated nodules or carbonate-cemented lumps of centimetric to decimetric size. The corresponding residual fractions containing both primary minerals and authigenic clays were digested separately and analyzed. These values indicate that climatic conditions were humid enough to allow silicate weathering: MAR at the time of carbonate formation likely ranged from to mm, which is 2- to 3-fold less than the current MAR at these locations.

The occurrence of Ce, Mn and Fe oxides in the cracks of carbonate reflects the existence of relatively humid periods after carbonate formation. The carbonate ages determined by the U-Th method range from 1. The young occurrences are only located in the black soils, which therefore constitute sensitive environments for trapping and retaining atmospheric CO 2 even on short time scales.


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The intensity of rainfall during wet periods would indeed control the lifetime of pedogenic carbonates and thus the duration of inorganic carbon storage in soils. Paleoenvironmental evolution and geomorphic dynamics recorded in the Homo-bearing Pleistocene stratigraphic succession of Aalat Eritrea, East Africa : A pedological perspective. The Aalat stratigraphic succession represents a m-thick continental archive in the northern sector of the African Rift Valley Dandiero basin, Eritrea.

Based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphy, along with tephrostratigrapic, paleontological and paleoanthropological data and correlations, the chronological constraints for the emplacement of this succession can be fixed at two stages characterized by normal polarity of the Earth's magnetic field, i. Despite nowadays the study area has a typical arid, hot desert climate, the sedimentary succession records repeated shifts from fluvial to lacustrine facies, in line with dominant mammalian taxa characterized by strong water dependence and ichthyofauna typical of shallow-water fluvio-lacustrine paleoenvironments.

The dominance of these water-controlled depositional environments over more than ka suggests a major tectonic control, even though a clear overprinting of Pleistocene climate changes can be detected. Nonetheless, the presence of calcic and especially petrocalcic horizons and one petrogypsic horizon at different stratigraphic heights clearly indicates cyclical phases of geomorphic stability, which allowed important leaching and accumulation of carbonate or gypsum. Their complex, polygenetic fabric, often showing brecciation and re-dissolution features, points to a polyphased genesis, caused by changes in soil moisture conditions over time.

In addition, some carbonate parent material enhancing secondary carbonate dynamics within the soil system, dominated by siliciclastic grains sourced from the metamorphic basement rocks prevailing in the Dandiero basin, could have been supplied as eolian dust during dryer glacial periods. Further investigations are required to assess the potential role of paleoenvironmental changes recorded in the Dandiero basin fill on human settlement, dispersal and evolution in East Africa during the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition.

Concentrations of seven metals were measured in over samples as part of an integrated survey. Sixteen metal pairs were significantly positively correlated. Cluster analysis identified two clusters. Metals from the largest Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn , but not the smallest Cd, Pb cluster were significantly negatively correlated with spatial location and soil pH and organic matter content. Cd and Pb were not correlated with these parameters, due possibly to the masking effect of recent extensive release. Analysis of trends with soil properties in different habitats indicated that general trends may not necessarily be applicable to all areas.

A risk assessment indicated that Zn poses the most widespread direct risk to soil fauna and Cd the least. Any risks associated with high metal concentrations are, however, likely to be greatest in habitats such as arable and horticultural, improved grassland and built up areas where soil metal concentrations are more frequently elevated. Influence of geography, seasons and pedology on chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Lippia multiflora Mold leaves.

Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications.

Natural Lippia multiflora seeds were sourced to produce standardized plants over a period of six months. Anti-inflammatory properties were also assessed against activated macrophages in vitro. The results indicated that chemical profiles and essential oil yields vary according to the location where the plants were cultivated. Statistical analysis of the chemical profiles and monthly evolution of the three sites over a period of one year allowed assessment of variations in composition and the subsequent choice of the optimal harvest time for ethnopharmacological applications.

Anti-inflammatory activity apparently correlated with chemical profiles of essential oils and the geographic origins of the plants. The optimal harvest time was associated with the maximum yield of pharmacological compounds with the most potential interest for health. Landsat Data as a Tool for the Geosciences. Applications of the Landsat Thematic Mapper in the fields of pedology , geology, and geomorphology are described. The history of the Landsat program and Landsat products are discussed. Illustrations of different Landsat views are presented.

Pedologic photointerpretative criteria adapted to LANDSAT orbital imagery were used: drainage pattern, integration degree, density and uniformity degree ; relief pattern, dissection degree and crest lines ; photographic texture, photographic tonnality, and the land use type, glebas size and intensity of use. The performance of the imagery as an auxiliar tool in the soil survey processes, at Rio Grande do Norte State was evaluated. The drainage and relief elements were easily extracted from the imagery and also ones that provided the greatest deductive possibility about pedologic boundaries.

Other analyzed criteria were considered only auxiliaries, corroborating some soil limits in the evidences convergence phase. Multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Europe. The author has identified the following significant results. Studies were carried out in the fields of geology- pedology , coastal dynamics, geodesy-cartography, geography, and data processing. In geology- pedology , a comparison of ERTS image studies with extensive ground data led to a better understanding of the relationship between vegetation, soil, bedrock, and other geologic features.

Findings in linear tectonics gave better insight in orogeny and ore deposit development for prospecting. Coastal studies proved the value of ERTS images for the updating of nautical charts, as well as small scale topographic maps. A plotter for large scale high speed image generation from CCT was developed. Hydropedology — The last decade and the next decade. It emphasizes in-situ soils in the landscape, where distinct pedogenic features e. Carbon sequestration in response to grassland—shrubland—turfgrass conversions and a test for carbonate biomineralization in desert soils, New Mexico, USA.

This study uses an experimental pedology approach to examine i how the conversion of native C4 grassland to C3 woody shrubs then to irrigated C4 turfgrass affects both soil organic C SOC and soil inorganic C SIC and ii whether SIC can be enhanced by microbial biomineralization.

Three sites w Sediment transport due to tree root throw: Integrating tree population dynamics, wildfire and geomorphic response. Earth Surface Processes The ground observations undertaken over the northern position of Minas Gerais State, and part of Distrito Federal from 7 to 12 December , along the Space Shuttle 2 flying orbit 22 of November are described. Field data related mostly with lithology, geological structures and forest cover, and specific geomorphological and pedological aspects were collected.

Ground data are applied to evaluate the SIR-A Experiment, developed in the Space Shuttle-2 mission for natural resources mapping and prospecting. For more than three decades Kaye Everett conducted research on pedology , hydrology, geology, and ecology in virtually all major polar regions of the globe. Building on early work by Russian pedologists, investigation of polar soils began in earnest following World War II.

Differing national and individual soil classifications emerged and efforts to unify them continue to the present. Starting in the early s Everett applied his interest in soil morphology, genesis, mapping, and classification to geobotanical landscape approaches in arctic Alaska. Working closely with other ecologists, these approaches resulted in a series of geobotanical and terrain sensitivity studies and publications related to both ecosystem function and response of tundra to impacts of resource development.

More recent investigations focused on the transport of air- and waterborne nutrients in arctic watershed. For more than a century, the Sangamon paleosol the Sangamon has been an integral part of geologic and pedologic investigations in the central United States, including the Upper Mississippi and Lower Missouri River Valleys. Compositional, pedologic , micromorphologic, stratigraphic, and age data indicate that the prominent reddish paleosol developed in silt-rich deposits of the Lower Mississippi Valley, from southernmost Illinois to northwestern Mississippi, represents multiple periods of soil formation, and is wholly or in part time equivalent to the Sangamon of the central United States.

Thermoluminescence data, for localities where the Sangamon developed in loess, indicate that the primary period of loess deposition was from to ka oxygen isotope stage, OIS6 , that loess deposition continued intermittently from to 74 ka OIS5 , and that deposition was wholly or in part coeval with Loveland loess deposition in the central United States.

Beryllium, chemical, and pedologic data indicate that in the Lower Mississippi Valley: 1 the Sangamon represents a minimum time period of k. Along a N-S transect from southern Illinois to western Mississippi, Sangamon macroscopic characteristics as well asthe micro-morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy, suggest a regional paleoclimate during periods of soil formation that: 1 was warm to hot, with a wider range in temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration than present; 2 had seasonal to decadal or longer periods of drought; and 3 had down-valley southward trends of increasing temperature and precipitation and decreasing seasonality and variation in annualto decadal precipitation.

Interpretation of satellite images of the Republic of Niger. Checking of the extent of vegetation and use of the soils and effects of desertification for the purpose of yearly map making was carried out. Since that station will not be operating before , the establishment of a mobile reception station in the Republic of Niger to enable the installation of the required control system is advised. When some thermal radiation sensitive devices on U. The concept of using the property of thermal inertia to identify materials, particularly those of a geologic nature can be traced to the same time period that marks the flight of the first LANDSAT - Spacecraft systems and their performance, and capabilities are reviewed as well as achievements in hydrology, geology, agriculture, pedology , and urban climate effects applications.

Hydropedology: Synergistic integration of soil science and hydrology in the Critical Zone. The interactions between soil and water are so intimate and complex that they cannot be effectively studied in a piecemeal manner; they require a systems approach. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All.

Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Publisher: Springer Nature. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Contents Customer reviews Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book Geopedology offers a proven approach for reliable mapping of soil-landscape relationships to derive information for policy, planning and management at scales ranging from local to regional.

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